“Remembering the Covenant”
Deuteronomy 4:9-14 (Pt. 1)
November 14, 2021
Faith Presbyterian Church – Morning Service
We continue this morning in the book of Deuteronomy, with Moses preaching to the second exodus generation of Israel, on the edge of the promised land.
And as happened a couple months ago, I’ve had to split a sermon in two again.
The title, you’ll see in the bulletin, is “The Covenant Received and Passed On.” And like last time, the conjunction in the title should have tipped me off that I was trying to do too much.
So, instead, we will consider the covenant received this morning, and passed on next Lord’s Day.
One heads-up on that: The last two hymns in the bulletin this morning were particularly aimed at the half of the title that we’re not talking about today. So we will have different hymns for the rest of the service than are in the bulletin. They’ll be from the hymnal, and just keep alert and we’ll tell you what they are when we get to them.
For now, we turn to our text: Deuteronomy 4:9-14.
Please do listen carefully, for this is God’s word for us this morning.
4:9 “Only take care, and keep your soul diligently, lest you forget the things that your eyes have seen, and lest they depart from your heart all the days of your life. Make them known to your children and your children’s children— 10 how on the day that you stood before Yahweh your God at Horeb, Yahweh said to me, ‘Gather the people to me, that I may let them hear my words, so that they may learn to fear me all the days that they live on the earth, and that they may teach their children so.’ 11 And you came near and stood at the foot of the mountain, while the mountain burned with fire to the heart of heaven, wrapped in darkness, cloud, and gloom. 12 Then Yahweh spoke to you out of the midst of the fire. You heard the sound of words, but saw no form; there was only a voice. 13 And he declared to you his covenant, which he commanded you to perform, that is, the Ten Commandments, and he wrote them on two tablets of stone. 14 And Yahweh commanded me at that time to teach you statutes and rules, that you might do them in the land that you are going over to possess.
This is the word of the Lord. (Thanks be to God.)
“All people are like grass, and all their glory is like the flowers of the field; the grass withers and the flowers fall, but the word of the Lord endures forever.” [1 Peter 1:24-25]
Let’s pray …
Lord, your word is a lamp to our feet
and a light to our path.
And we, as your people, have committed ourselves
to keep your righteous commandments.
In the trials we face,
we ask you, Lord, to give us life according to your word.
As you have accepted our praises this morning,
so now teach us the way you would have us to go.
Your testimonies are our heritage forever,
for they are the joy of our hearts.
Incline our hearts to perform your statutes
forever, to the end.
This we ask in Jesus’s name. Amen.
[Based on Psalm 119:105-108, 111-112]
In our text this morning, Moses points back to the events at Mt. Sinai 40 years earlier. And he calls on the people to remember what God did there, and to make it known to their children.
As I said, we will focus on the second half of that – making it known to their children – next Sunday. But this morning we will be especially considering the first half of that – the call to remember.
And Moses gives this call to remember, because, as he says in verse nine, they … and we … can be prone to forget.
“Only take care,” Moses says in verse nine, “and keep your soul diligently, lest you forget the things that your eyes have seen, and lest they depart from your heart all the days of your life.”
In our text Moses tells us that though we can be tempted to forget, God calls us to remember his covenant.
Though we can be tempted to forget, God calls us to remember his covenant.
And in this text, God calls us to remember his covenant in three particular ways: He calls us to remember the relationship at its core, he calls us to remember the range of ways he works, and he calls us to remember the response we should have to him.
So he calls us to remember the relationship, the range, and the response.
Remember the Relationship
So the first thing Moses calls them to remember is the relationship that is at the core of the covenant.
Moses says in verse thirteen: “And he [that is, God,] declared to you his covenant, which he commanded you to perform, that is, the Ten Commandments, and he wrote them on two tablets of stone.”
By emphasizing the covenant in this verse, Moses is also stressing “the relational nature of the law.” [Barker, 337]
The commands themselves are relational. They are not just abstract moral principles. But they are instructions to Israel about how to be faithful in their relationship to God. God tells them how to relate to him, how not to relate to him, and also how to relate to one another within the people of God – within God’s family. And while we can tend to leave it out in our minds, the Ten Commandments, as a document, are not one-directional. They describe a mutual relationship. Before God tells Israel what they are to do, he identifies what he has already done. He says: “I am Yahweh your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery.” [Deuteronomy 5:6]
When Moses calls Israel to remember the covenant – to remember the Ten Commandments – he is calling on them to remember specific commandments, that is true. But at the heart of it he is calling on them to remember their relationship to God. God has been faithful to them. He has saved them. And now they are called to be faithful to him.
We might think about it like this. When Christians are called on to remember the covenant – including to remember the commands of the covenant – it is similar to when a man or woman is told to remember their marriage vows.
First, they are not being told to remember a past event like a piece of data, but they are being told to remember a foundational moment in a relationship.
Second, they are being told to remember the terms of the relationship, that is true – but they are not terms like the terms of a business contract or a political agreement. They are instead terms of love. They are the terms of a loving and affectionate relationship. And the terms exist in order to protect, and strengthen, and properly define that loving and affectionate relationship.
Third, to remember those details of the relationship is to remember the relationship itself – the love and actions that led to the relationship, and all that has come from the relationship since then.
Israel is called on here to remember their relationship to God – to Yahweh. And we are called to do the same. Because, as Moses stresses in verse nine, it is possible to forget.
It is possible for us to begin to think, and act, and speak, as if our faith is not, at its core, a relationship. But instead we can slip into thinking of it as just a helpful system of thought. A plausible worldview. Or an ethical system that helps us live a moral life. Or a spiritual system that encourages and comforts us. Or something else.
And the covenant may do all those things. But that’s not what the covenant is. The covenant, at its core, is a relationship with God our Maker. This is the first thing that Moses calls us to remember here.
Remember the Range of Experiences
The second thing our text calls us to remember is the range of ways that God works among his people.
And this may not be as obvious on a quick reading of the text, but just a little bit of reflection gets us there, and helps us see just how obvious this reality must have been to the original audience.
Let’s recap the events that have formed that original audience. Forty years earlier God has rescued Israel from oppression and slavery in Egypt. After defeating Egypt, he brought his people to Mt. Sinai, where he spoke to them. Then, from there, thirty-eight years before Moses spoke these words to the people, God brought Israel to the edge of the promised land, and they refused to go in. As discipline, God said that with just a couple exceptions, all the people age twenty and up – the adult generations that refused to enter the land – all the people from twenty and up would die in the wilderness, and then the next generation would enter the land. [Numbers 14]
And it is that next generation whom Moses is speaking to here. For 38 years Israel was in the wilderness. And all who had been 20 or older had died, except for Caleb and Joshua, and (for just a bit longer) Moses.
Think about what that means for this population. First, there is almost no one in Israel over the age of 57, because those who were 20 or older 38 years earlier had died. So, you have this younger population.
But then when Moses addresses this population, he says in verse nine “Only take care, and keep your soul diligently, lest you forget the things that your eyes have seen, and lest they depart from your heart all the days of your life.”
And what are the things he wants them to remember? He says in verses ten through twelve – he wants them to remember:
how on the day that you stood before Yahweh your God at Horeb, Yahweh said to me, ‘Gather the people to me, that I may let them hear my words, so that they may learn to fear me all the days that they live on the earth, and that they may teach their children so.’ And you came near and stood at the foot of the mountain, while the mountain burned with fire to the heart of heaven, wrapped in darkness, cloud, and gloom. Then Yahweh spoke to you out of the midst of the fire. You heard the sound of words, but saw no form; there was only a voice.
Moses wants them to remember what happened on Mount Sinai, when God spoke to Israel. He urges them to remember it.
But what is this population’s relationship to those events?
The population Moses is speaking to could be broken down into three main groups, in terms of their relationship to the events Moses wants them to remember.
First, there were those who would have real memories of those events. Now, if earliest memories tend to go back to ages three or four, then this would be the people roughly from their early forties up to age fifty-seven. Some – those who were teenagers when God spoke to Israel from the mountain – would remember it pretty well. Others – those who were age 3 to 5 at the time – probably had much more hazy memories. And a range would exist between them. But this first group – from their early forties to their mid-fifties would have real personal memories of what Moses is calling on them to remember.
Second, there would be those who were there, but were so young that they would have no memory of what happened at Sinai: those who would be between their late thirties and early forties at the time Moses is addressing them in Deuteronomy 4. They grew up being told they were there – maybe being told of how they responded as children to hearing the voice of God – but they themselves would probably not remember it.
And then there would be everyone else: everyone younger than their late thirties. Which would include the bulk of the fighting force about to enter the new land. That third group wasn’t even there at Mount Sinai. They hadn’t been born yet. And yet Moses here calls on them not to forget “how,” he says to them “you stood before Yahweh your God” … “and you came near” and saw the fire and the darkness … and “you heard the sound of words” from God’s own mouth.
Moses calls them all to remember – though some would have real and clear memories of those events while others had not yet been born. And Moses speaks to them all as being involved – though some had heard the words and responded to them at the time, and others never had that opportunity.
There is a range of experiences among the people of God while Moses addresses them in Deuteronomy four, and yet Moses addresses them as one, and calls on them all to remember the ways God has worked among them.
And each individual, depending on their relationship to the events of Mt. Sinai – depending on whether they had witnessed it themselves, or been told about it as they grew up – each individual needed to understand their call within the framework of how they had received the covenant. How they obeyed Moses’s command to remember, would, in some sense, depend on where they fit in the range of ways that God had worked among his people.
And the same is true for us.
Now, none of us were at Mt. Sinai – that is true. But for those of us who are believers, God has worked among us in a range of ways. And we need to consider what it means for us to remember the covenant and how God brought us into it.
So what are the main categories of how God has brought his covenant to each of us?
Some of you here have had conversion experiences. You did not believe, and then one day you did. You were not following Christ, and then, one day, you were.
Maybe you can pinpoint the moment it changed. Maybe it was more gradual, over a period of time. But either way – whether a particular hour or a particular season of life – you can identify a turning point, an upheaval in your life when you went from denial and resistance towards the Lord, to acceptance, faith, and striving toward obedience towards him.
In some circles of American Christianity, those kinds of stories are prized. They can be treated as a sort of badge, and as a source of assurance about the genuineness of your faith. If you lack one, you can even feel pressure to make one up. Such stories can feel like a concrete event that points to the Lord’s objective work in your life.
But other times, later conversion can be a point of insecurity – especially if we know other Christians who have known the Lord their entire lives. We can start to feel the gaps – the benefits of years of discipleship that they have but that we have missed.
I became a believer in high school. Some of you came to know the Lord later in life than that. When we talk to someone who grew up being catechized, who grew up hearing and reading the Bible on an almost daily basis from as early as they can remember, who remember prayer as a part of life from their earliest days, we can feel the lack of instruction and formation from our many years apart from the Lord – from the years where we were maybe being shaped in ways opposed to that. And we can then be tempted to think of ourselves as a sort of lower-tier of Christians – as lacking the potential for holiness or for spiritual accomplishments or service which other Christians have.
But thankfully, even an initial look at Church history reveals that those thoughts are false. Even a cursory study of the history of God’s people over the centuries shows how often it was those who came to faith later in life – those who lacked interest in the Lord until adolescence or adulthood – that God has used among his people.
To be sure, he has very often used those who grew up in the faith as well – but he also has taken a delight in using those with less of a spiritual pedigree.
And the Scriptures affirm something like this pattern. The Apostle Paul writes to the church in Corinth: “We have this treasure in jars of clay, to show that the surpassing power belongs to God and not to us.” [ 2 Corinthians 4:7]
Think of the older adults present in Deuteronomy 4 as Moses is speaking to them – those who were teenagers at the time of Sinai. On the one hand, these men and women would have much more dramatic memories and experiences than anyone else. But they also lacked some things that younger men and women around them had. And I bet that weighed on them at times.
Do you realize that they grew up without the Scriptures? They had not yet been written. Instead the spiritual instruction they received as they grew up was just whatever instruction was passed on to them by their parents and others as they grew up in Egypt. We can imagine that that varied quite a bit – especially as some of that older generation displayed their faithlessness later on. Many in this older group probably grew up without knowing much about the Lord, and then one day the Lord suddenly acted. He defeated Egypt, he parted the Red Sea, he appeared on Mount Sinai. That was an abrupt turning point in their lives. And then, after that, they received the Scriptures and more detailed instruction through Moses.
But one wonders if they felt insecure at times compared with others around them – with those who had grown up under the instruction of Moses, who had grown up with the Word of God written for them, who had grown up with the tabernacle of God before them instead of the pyramids of Pharoah. Those other Israelites had so much that those born a few years earlier lacked.
And yet, when Moses calls on the people to remember Sinai, we cannot help but think that those who were teenagers at the time – those who had concrete memories of those events – had a special calling and a special role towards those who had not experienced that dramatic turning point. They had their own contribution to the people of God, which God had always planned for them, and equipped them for, and was now calling them to.
In the same way, if you came to receive the covenant through a conversion experience, do not disparage your story. Do not disparage your faith. Do not disparage your role in the Body of Christ. For God has frequently delighted to use among his people those whom he has brought to himself in such a way. And he has a plan and a role for you among his people as well.
Though it may be a source of sadness – though it may be a source of ongoing struggle with sin – still, you have an insight into the dramatic works of God that many others do not. And God calls you to remember how he has worked in your life.
So there are those who have come to receive the covenant through a conversion experience – that is one major group.
The other major group has come to receive the covenant through a covenant-succession experience. You grew up in a place where active faith in Christ was a part of life around you, and you cannot remember a day of your life where you did not know the Lord as your Savior.
This is the experience of others of you here. You have grown up in the faith – maybe even right here in this congregation – and rather than an abrupt turn in your life, your faith has more or less been the story of ongoing discipleship from your earliest days.
There are, as we have already said, many benefits to receiving the covenant this way. And most of you know this. And yet, at the same time, you too can sometimes question your relationship to the Lord because of the ways it differs from those with a more dramatic experience. In fact, your coming to know the Lord can look so natural and ordinary, that there is a temptation to think of what you experienced as just a natural and ordinary process. What I mean is – there can be a temptation to wonder if it’s just a cultural thing that you absorbed … which can lead you to wonder if the only thing to your faith is inculturation.
“Is it really my faith if it was given to me, and I did not find it myself?” you may wonder.
“How do I know this is all real if I only know about it because other people told me as I grew up?”
Now, on one level these questions can be part of a process of growing and maturing in your faith – and so asking them in a way that seeks to grow in your relationship to the Lord is not necessarily a bad thing.
But other times, we can ask these questions in a way that is rooted in false assumptions. As one theologian points out, we can sometimes ask these questions with an unarticulated assumption that natural life and spiritual life are supposed to be two completely separate things. And so, if our spiritual life looks so natural – if it takes its formation especially from the natural means of instruction and inculturation as a child – then we can wonder if our spiritual life is spiritual at all, or if it’s just a natural imitation.
But this suspicion or concern comes from a false view of Biblical spirituality. In the Bible, spiritual life is not a separate and additional layer added on top of, or alongside, natural life. Instead, it is the correction of our natural lives, a work of restoring them to what God intended them to be at creation. [Leithart, 113-136]
And while that process may be more abrupt in the life of someone who comes to know the Lord later on in life, in those who grow up in the covenant, God may redeem the very means of their upbringing.
One theologian puts it like this – he says: Biblically, the “instilling of Christlike character runs along the tracks established in creation, for the Christian training of the child, of a Christian child, begins immediately upon his birth. God does not form a Christlike character by laying a second set of tracks but by restoring and transforming the ‘natural’ tracks.” Those who grow up in the covenant community are supposed to be treated “as Christians so that the social and cultural nurture of the child is simultaneously his or her nurture in Christian character and faith. This simultaneity recovers the condition of the original creation. If Adam had never sinned, he would have raised his children through instruction and certain forms of discipline […], and the result of this nurture would have been mature, godly, character. The created means of nurture would have been simultaneously nurture and admonition in the Lord, so that coming to physical and psycho-social maturity would have been indistinguishable from coming to ‘religious’ maturity. Sin is responsible for the gap that now exists [between these forms of maturity].” For those who grow up in faithful Christian homes, “the gospel’s solution to this gap is not to lay an entirely new set of tracks but to close the gap by redeeming the original created means [of nurture] from sin.” [Leithart, 115-116]
If you have never known a day when you did not know the Lord, then in your life, the Lord is displaying his grace and glory in a different way from those who come to know him through a conversion experience: he is redeeming not just you, and not just your mature life, but he is redeeming the process by which you were raised, and with it, the early stages and development, and nurture of your own life.
Because remember, Christ has redeemed all of life – not just some of it. And your life may be one way he is displaying that reality.
The second-century church father Irenaeus made the point that Jesus passed through every age of human development, and so he did not set aside the natural patterns of human growth and maturity, but rather he “sanctified every age” by passing through it himself, and thus he made redemption available to people at every stage of life. Irenaeus writes: “He therefore passed through every age, becoming an infant for infants, thus sanctifying infants; a child for children, thus sanctifying those who are of this age, being at the same time made to them an example of piety, righteousness, and submission; a youth for youths, becoming an example to youths, and thus sanctifying them for the Lord.” And so on into adulthood. [Irenaeus, Against Heresies 2.22.4]
And God had done the same thing in the lives of many who were gathered before Moses in Deuteronomy 4. They did not remember the abrupt drama of the exodus or of Mt. Sinai. But instead, God, through his word, through the community of God’s people, through the worship of God’s people – through the means of grace – God had been shaping them from the early stages of life. And they too were called by Moses to remember the works of the Lord, and to serve his kingdom.
And so it is the case for many of you. God has redeemed not just your life – but the path of your life, from its earliest stages. Do not despise that, but delight in it. And glorify God in the unique ways he has equipped you to serve his kingdom through the pattern of your redemption.
So though we are prone to forget it, God calls us to remember his covenant with us. He calls us to remember that our relationship to him is at the core of the covenant. He calls us to remember and acknowledge the range of ways God works in the lives of his people, and the specific ways he has worked in our own life.
Remembering Our Response
Third, he calls us to remember the response we should have to him.
And recognizing that call is tied up in recognizing exactly what Moses is calling the people to when he calls them to remember.
Again, in verse nine, Moses says: “Only take care, and keep your soul diligently, lest you forget the things that your eyes have seen, and lest they depart from your heart all the days of your life.”
The emphasis here is on remembering. And it is a holistic and responsive kind of remembering.
As commentator Daniel Block points out, the threat of forgetting in this passage is not just a loss of a memory, but a loss of what that memory implies. It is not just a loss of information, but a failure to live in light of that information. [Block, 126]
Israel could forget not only in thought, but also in word, or in deed. They could fail to mentally recall the relationship God had established with them at Sinai and called them to – that is true. But they could also fall into the pattern of speaking as if God had not done what he had done for them. And they could fall into the pattern of acting as if God had not called them to live in a certain way in response.
And the fact that Moses says this to Israel right before they enter a land of pagans who will be quite hostile towards them is significant. As one commentator puts it: “The Israelites’ greatest enemy will not be the Canaanites out there, but their own mind and heart within them” if they forget what the Lord has done for them, and called them to – if they forget the response they should have towards the Lord in their life in the promised land. [Block, 126]
Active engagement in their faith – active engagement in the covenant – means holistic remembering: thinking, and speaking, and acting in a way that is always rooted in the memory of what Yahweh had done, and promised, and called them to … and then responding appropriately.
Israel knew what they were called to do. Moses mentions the Ten Commandments in verse thirteen, and with them he alludes to the whole law given from God to Israel. Israel was called to remember the law.
But they were also called to remember that their obedience to the law was a response to what God had done for them. Remember, the Ten Commandments begin “I am Yahweh your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery.”
Every command that comes after that, is a response to that first statement – the statement of what God had already done for them. They needed to remember that their lives were to be a response to the works of God.
And we must remember that as well.
As we have already considered, if you are a Christian, then God, in his grace, has applied his redemption to you – he has brought you to know and to trust him. He has rescued you from the futile ways of sin.
If God brought you to himself later in life, then you know the emptiness of the forms of sin he has saved you from. You know, from experience, what little joy they brought you. You know how empty you felt in them. You know how hopeless life seeking fulfillment from worldly accomplishments or worldly pleasures was. You know how powerless you felt, enslaved to them. That is why you longed for something else. That is why you rejoiced when you came to know Christ, and he freed you from those futile ways.
And when you are tempted to return to those futile ways now – to seek fulfillment in the pleasures of sin or the idolatries of this world – you must remember what God did when he first applied his saving redemption to you. You must remember how he rescued you from those ways. And you must remember that the proper response to being rescued from such things is not to return to them, but to strive to be faithful to him, and to the new life he has given you.
And the same is true if you grew up in the faith. You may not have the same memories, though you have faced plenty of sin and temptation. But God has spared you from being completely immersed in futility – in the empty pleasures or the hollow idolatries of this world. As you remember that, how can you now willingly give yourself over to such things?
Remembering the way the Lord has applied his redemption to us should help us to respond rightly to his commands.
In a similar way, remembering the accomplishment of our redemption – the work of Christ purchasing our salvation in his life, death, and resurrection, should also help us to respond to God aright.
When you are tempted to selfishness, when you are tempted to retreat from the hard callings of sacrificial love in the Christian life, then you are to remember the redemption our Lord has accomplished for you.
He left the comforts of heaven to come to a fallen and broken world in the person of Jesus Christ. He entered into poverty. He entered into pain. He was dismissed, mocked, rejected. He was arrested, beaten, spit upon. He was crucified and died. All to redeem you. All to love you.
And so, when God calls his people to sacrificial love – towards him, towards their brothers and sisters in Christ, and towards the world, how can we refuse? How can we retreat? How can we keep ourselves back if we remember all he has done for us?
Or what if you are not a Christian yet this morning? What if you have not yet given yourself to Christ?
Well, God calls on you to remember and to respond to the appeal of redemption – the appeal that may have drawn you here … the appeal that may be pulling at your heart. Because that too is a sign of God’s work in your life.
Tim Keller, in his book Center Church, mentions a conversation he had with a missionary who worked among prostitutes in Korea years ago. Keller writes: The missionary “found that [these prostitutes,] in that culture simply could not accept the idea of God extending grace to them. Their self-loathing was too great. No matter how much the missionary showed them narratives of Jesus’ forgiveness or passages about God’s love and grace, he got nowhere. Finally, the missionary, who was a Presbyterian, came up with a radical idea. He decided to talk to these non-Christian Asian prostitutes about the doctrine of predestination.”
“He told the prostitutes about a God who is a king. Kings, he said, have a sovereign right to act as they saw fit. They rule – that’s just what kings do. And this great divine King chooses to select people out of the human race to serve him, simply because it is his sovereign will to do so. Therefore, his people are saved because of his royal will, not because of the quality of their lives or anything they have done.”
“This made sense to the women. […] But this also meant that when people were saved, it was not because of pedigree or virtue or effort, but because of the will of God […]. Their acceptance of this belief opened up the possibility of understanding and accepting the belief in salvation by grace. They [then] asked [the] missionary […] a question that a non-Christian in the West would never ask: ‘How can I know if I am chosen?’ He answered that if as they heard the gospel they wanted to accept and believe it, this was a sign that the Holy Spirit was working on their hearts and that God was seeking them.” And after hearing that, some of them finally responded to the gospel. [Keller, 125-126]
If you are drawn to Christ but hesitating, then you are called this morning to remember the appeal of redemption – the fact that that if you feel that sense of call, then God himself is at work. He is calling you. And the proper response is to go to him in faith.
Each and every one of us can be tempted to forget, but in our text this morning, God calls us to remember his covenant: to remember the response we should have to what he has done for us, to remember the range of ways he works among his people, and to remember that at its core, the covenant is a relationship.
God, your Maker, has called you to a relationship with himself. What could be more important than that? And yet somehow, in the mystery of sin, we can be prone to forget that – in thought, word or deed.
And so, God this morning calls you to remember. “Take care,” he says. “Keep your soul diligently,” he says. Do not forget. But instead, lay these things up in your heart, all the days of your life.
This sermon draws on material from:
Barker, Paul. Introduction and notes to Deuteronomy in The ESV Study Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2008.
Block, Daniel I. The NIV Application Commentary: Deuteronomy. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2012.
Irenaeus of Lyons. Against Heresies. Translated by Alexander Roberts and William Rambaut. From Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 1. Edited by Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson, and A. Cleveland Coxe. (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1885.) Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. <http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0103222.htm>.
Keller, Timothy. Center Church. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2012.
Leithart, Peter J. The Baptized Body. Moscow, ID: Canon Press, 2007.Wright, Christopher. Deuteronomy. NIBC. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1996.
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