“The Tenth Commandment”
November 20, 2022
Faith Presbyterian Church – Morning Service
The Reading of the Word
This morning, as we continue our series in Deuteronomy, we come to the end of our time in the Ten Commandments, as we consider the tenth commandment. Our text will be Deuteronomy 5:6 & 21.
Please do listen carefully, for this is God’s word for us this morning.
The Lord said to his people:
6 “‘I am Yahweh your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery.
21“‘And you shall not covet your neighbor’s wife. And you shall not desire your neighbor’s house, his field, or his male servant, or his female servant, his ox, or his donkey, or anything that is your neighbor’s.’
This is the word of the Lord. (Thanks be to God.)
“All people are like grass, and all their glory is like the flowers of the field; the grass withers and the flowers fall, but the word of the Lord endures forever.” [1 Peter 1:24-25]
Let’s pray …
Prayer of Illumination
Lord, like the psalmist,
When we think of the direction you give us through your ancient word,
we take comfort, Lord.
Let your word be now our joy and delight,
as we attend to it here in your house,
so that we would remember your revelation as we go from here, day and night,
that we may cling to and follow it.
Give us that great blessing,
of walking in your ways, by the power of your Spirit
Grant this, we ask, in Jesus’s name. Amen
[Based on Psalm 119:52, 54-56]
After a series of short commandments – several of them only two words in Hebrew, another only five words in Hebrew, we now come to a much longer commandment. And an almost unnecessarily long one. Which has the effect of getting our attention as we come to the end of the Ten Commandments. [Leithart, 115]
Which is fitting because as we come to the tenth commandment, we need to appreciate how it reflects back and tells us how to interpret the nine commandments that came before it.
Throughout this series, with each commandment, we have considered not only what each commandment has to say about our external actions, but also what it has to say about our hearts. And that’s not new – it is, in fact, exactly how we see Jesus interpret the commandments in his Sermon on the Mount. But the tenth commandment reminds us that this approach wasn’t new with Jesus either. The Ten Commandments were always meant to cut to our hearts. And the tenth commandment makes that point clear. Its focus is the heart. And it applies previous commandments to the heart. [Frame, 845, 850; Wright, 85]
More specifically, the tenth commandment raises the issue of coveting. And with it, it pushes us to consider the topics of desire, discontentedness, and gratitude.
Let’s take a few minutes to consider each of those.
The Tenth Commandment: Desire, Discontentedness, and Gratitude
First, the tenth commandment is about desire. Jealousy is about how we relate to what is ours. Envy is about wanting others not to have something that they have. But covetousness is focused on what we desire for ourselves, but don’t have. [Leithart, 116-117] Covetousness is an inordinate or inappropriate desire for something that is not ours.
And those qualifiers of “inordinate” or “inappropriate” are important. What makes a desire into coveting is that we want something more than we should, or we want something that can never rightly be ours. And it doesn’t take much to recognize that this is what’s in view in the commandment, even as it uses the word “desire.”
Desiring someone’s house may be perfectly appropriate at times – especially if they have put it on the market. Then we can see it, desire it, make an offer on it, and maybe even buy it. That process is not itself what’s in view in the tenth commandment. [It was another pastor who pointed out this distinction to me, though I cannot recall the exact source.]
But coveting occurs when our desire for something that’s not ours is greater than it should be, or when it’s present for something that cannot rightly and justly become ours. Coveting grows out of desiring something inordinately or inappropriately. And inordinate or inappropriate desires are always rooted in discontentedness.
And so covetousness is rooted in sinful discontentedness with what we already have.
And discontentedness is everywhere in our culture. Our culture is saturated with a way of looking at the world in which we are dissatisfied with what we have, indignant that we don’t have what we really want, and then covetous of what we don’t have. We live in a culture of discontentedness.
Theologian Christopher Wright notes that in modern, Western society, we have “built a whole ideological worldview on breaking the tenth commandment.” [Wright, 66] He writes that we have turned “covetous self-interest into a socioeconomic ideology, rationalized, euphemized, and idolized.” [Wright, 86] Our society no longer sees covetousness as a sin, but as an important market force. We don’t just tolerate it … we embrace it. Discontentedness with what we have and covetousness of what we don’t have are central features of American life.
But that fact is not just big-picture, and systematic, and out there. It also seeps into and often saturates our own hearts.
Christian writer Tish Harrison Warren recently reflected on this in a piece she wrote for The New York Times, titled “Confessions of a Christian Consumerist.” She writes:
“Perhaps I should begin with a confession of sin: I’m more materialistic than I thought. I don’t like to think of myself this way. My heroes all lived simply, if not in outright poverty. St. Francis, St. Clare, Dorothy Day and, well, Jesus himself. My family doesn’t go on fancy vacations. I don’t wear nice jewelry or drive an impressive car. So I sometimes self -righteously assume that I’m immune to greed, materialism, and consumerism. But then we moved into a new house.
“Suddenly, I found myself walking through the flooring store, riddled with anxiety, convinced that the course of my life would be determined by whether I went with the red oak wire brushed or Cambridge hickory. Or should it be the white oak? […] [H]ow is one to know?
She goes on, and writes:
“I’ve spent more time soul-searching, poring over which dining table to buy, than I spent choosing a spouse. And when said spouse ordered the wrong color bookshelves from Ikea, only to discover that the color I wanted (walnut effect light gray) is entirely out of stock, I grieved like some beloved pet had died. What happened to me? I have lived in East Africa without plumbing. I spent much of my 20s among the homeless. Now, I search Pinterest for “patio furniture inspiration.”
“Rationally,” she writes, “I know that material things will not bring me joy. […] I know that a magazine fantasy kitchen is not what will fill my soul. Yet the tentacles of a lie somehow burrow their way into my psyche: If I could somehow make my house look better, my life would be better. I would be better.”
Now … Warren isn’t saying that there’s something wrong with beautiful things. She’s focused on how our hearts relate to them. She’s focused on our inordinate desire to possess beautiful things for ourselves … and a discontented covetousness that overtakes us when we can’t have exactly what we want.
Such discontentedness is so common in our culture – encouraged even – that it’s easy for us to dismiss it as not that big of a deal.
But the Bible presents discontentedness and covetousness as a real spiritual danger.
Jesus, in his parable of the sower, warned that “the deceitfulness of riches and the desires for other things” could choke the effectiveness of the Word of God in our lives, so that we prove to be spiritually unfruitful. [Mark 14:18-19]
Paul gives us similarly stark warnings. He writes: “godliness with contentment is great gain, for we brought nothing into the world, and we cannot take anything out of the world. But if we have food and clothing, with these we will be content. But those who desire to be rich fall into temptation, into a snare, into many senseless and harmful desires that plunge people into ruin and destruction. For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evils. It is through this craving that some have wandered away from the faith and pierced themselves with many pangs.” [1 Tim 6:6-10]
Sinful discontentedness and covetousness can choke and shipwreck your faith. That is a serious threat.
If covetousness and discontentedness are both spiritually dangerous and culturally pervasive, what then are we to do? What is the remedy? How do we fight back?
Well, the Bible’s answer to discontentedness is gratitude. The opposite of discontentedness is not a sort of neutrality in which we cease to desire, but it is instead a state of thanksgiving and gratitude.
And so, for the rest of our time this morning, I want to consider the topic of gratitude from five angles. I want to consider:
- Gratitude and creation,
- Gratitude and our sin,
- Gratitude and the grace of the gospel,
- Gratitude and the hope of the gospel,
- And then gratitude and what God is doing right now in our lives
1) Gratitude & Creation
So, the first thing for us to consider when it comes to gratitude, is gratitude and creation.
The very fact of creation – the very fact that we exist … and that this world exists … is itself shocking grounds for gratitude and thanksgiving.
This is so obvious that we can miss it, but it really should smack us in the face every morning. It is a shocking miracle that we are here. And not just that God decided to create the universe (though that itself is amazing) but that you specifically exist out of all the people God might have made instead. And we can consider that, actually, in very concrete terms.
N.D. Wilson encourages us to think about it biologically, even. He puts it like this – and please forgive me if this seems a bit crass, but I think it’s helpful – he writes:
“Let us explore the general unlikelihood of anything ever happening, ever.
“Rumor has it that most normal men send at least eight million ‘forward swimming’ sperm looking for an egg every sexual act. Don’t even bother adding in egg variation, or the total number of sperm that may have had a fighting chance during your mother’s days of fertility when you were conceived (or the possibility that she might have taken her friends’ advice and shunned your father). Keep it simple and wildly conservative. Your chances of being here were about one out of eight million.”
It’s the same for the person next to you. So the chances of you both being here as the people that you are is therefore one out of sixty-four trillion.
Wilson goes on:
“We are a world of lottery winners. For every one of us here right now, in every begetting, there were at least 7,999,999 losers. They don’t even know how almost they were.
‘I wish I’d never been born,’ the adolescent moans.
‘[Close your mouth.] [Wilson replies] There are eight million other kids who would be wishing they could be here right now if only they were here to wish.’” [Wilson, 40-41]
When we want to talk about gratitude, when we want to consider why we should give thanks to God, we can begin with a fact that we take for granted almost every waking moment: that we exist, and there is absolutely no reason why we had to exist, except that God decided to make us. That fact should make us marvel. That fact should lead us to spontaneous gratitude and thanks.
And that thanks should grow as we consider the daily provisions that sustain our existence: the food we’ve had to eat … the clothes we’ve had to wear … the moment to moment provisions of God. Perhaps such reflections help us to better appreciate Paul’s words: that “if we have food and clothing, with these we will be content.”
Or think of the most important people in your life. Each one of them could have been someone else. The odds of each one of them existing as they are, is one in eight million at best …
You are, and they are, and all the earthly provisions before us are, because God decided to make them and sustain them, as a gift. The proper response to that is gratitude. The proper response is thanksgiving. And one part of the proper response to that is to see, in the midst of such blessings, just how petty and foolish discontentedness over the details of God’s provisions for us … and coveting of what he has given to others, really is.
The first thing we need to consider when it comes to gratitude is the very gift of creation and existence itself.
2) Gratitude & Our Sin
The second thing for us to consider when it comes to gratitude is the reality of our sin and God’s forbearance.
The Bible tells us that despite all that God has given us … we – the human race as a whole – have responded to our Maker with ingratitude and covetousness.
We see that in the day-to-day lives of ourselves individually, and the human race as a whole … but we see the root of this ingratitude and covetousness in the rebellion of our First Parents.
As we have noted throughout this series, we see in our root rebellion against God aspects of every one of the ten commandments. And the tenth commandment is no exception.
Our first parents had everything they needed. They literally lived in paradise. There was no sin in the world. No death. No sickness. Nothing could hurt them. The world itself was given to them. They were able to communicate with God face-to-face. Everything was perfect.
Among other things, God gave them all the fruit of all the trees of the Garden of Eden to eat … except for one. And what did they go and do?
Prompted by the devil, they became discontent … and then they coveted that one thing that God had withheld … and then they took it.
And that story reveals a few things.
One is the lie of coveting and discontentedness. When we covet, we tend to think some variation of: “If I just have that one thing, then I’ll be okay.” But clearly that is a lie, because we see that when we permit the sin of discontentedness into our hearts then even paradise itself will not seem like it’s for us.
Another we see in that story is just how evil our coveting and discontentedness really is. God gave our First Parents all they needed and more. And they decided in their hearts that he had been miserly towards them. They were discontent with what he gave them. And they coveted the one thing he hadn’t given to them. That’s awful. That’s despicable. What a personal insult that was to God himself.
And we’re not so different. We too can quite easily turn from God’s blessings. We too can insult God by turning up our nose at his good gifts. We too can personally insult our Maker in how we respond to the amazing blessings he’s given us. And it’s ugly. And it’s evil. And frankly, God shouldn’t have to put up with that. He should cast us aside. He should cast us out of his presence immediately. He should strip us of every good gift he’s given us, if that is how we’re going to act.
And yet … he hasn’t. We’re still here. He continues to send good gifts to ungrateful, discontent rebels. [Acts 14:17; Matthew 5:45]
That itself should lead us to give thanks to him. That itself should lead to gratitude. That itself should reveal once again his goodness to us, and so smother our discontentedness and covetousness. God has not annihilated us. He has continued to put up with us. He has continued to give us good things.
And so, when we see the gap between what we deserve for our discontentedness … and what we have been given instead – even just in the ordinary blessings of this life – that as well should lead us to gratitude.
3) Gratitude & the Grace of the Gospel
But then third, in the gospel, we need to recognize that God has done much more than just “put up with us.” He has instead acted in order to save us – in order to draw us close to himself for all eternity.
Though we had become his ungrateful and discontent enemies, God was determined to rescue us from our sin and from its consequences. And he was so willing to do this, that he gave his only Son. In Jesus Christ, God the Son came to suffer and die on the cross so that we might be saved – so that we might be made right with God, so that the consequences of our sin and our discontentedness might be done away with. For God so loves us that he gave his only Son.
That is a foundational spiritual truth of the grace of the gospel. And it too should lead us to gratitude.
It should lead us to gratitude because we do not deserve the Son of God to be sacrificed for us. But it should also lead to gratitude because it assures us beyond a doubt of God’s love for us, despite our sin. Because if God was willing to do that for us, then how can we ever doubt his love for us? How can we ever question whether what he’ll give us is really what’s best for us?
We heard that already this morning in the declaration of pardon – the Apostle Paul wrote: “He who did not spare his own Son but gave him up for us all, how will he not also with him graciously give us all things?” [Romans 8:32]
God has shown us immeasurable love in sending his Son to die for us, so that we might be saved from ourselves, and spend eternity with him. How then could we now feel discontent? How could we covet? If we really believe that, then how could we respond with anything other than thanks?
And so, third, we need to consider gratitude in light of the grace of the gospel.
4) Gratitude & the Hope of the Gospel
Fourth, we need to consider gratitude and the hope of the gospel.
And there’s a lot we could say here … but for now, in this point I have especially in mind those who feel that gratitude is out of reach for them, because their lives are instead too full of despair.
I may speak of the blessings of this life … but all you see is pain. I may speak of the joy of existence, and you find yourself wondering if existence is really so great after all.
It was recently pointed out to me that the 19th century preacher Charles Spurgeon was himself acquainted with such sorrow and despair, and spoke on it on a number of occasions.
Perhaps your sorrow and despair are growing out of your circumstances. It seems as if one difficulty just comes after another. “Trial has succeeded trial” Spurgeon writes, leading to an “accumulation of aches, pains, weaknesses and sorrows.” [Quoted in Eswine, 28] “Certain of my brethren,” he writes, “are frequently in trouble. Their whole life is a floundering out of one slough of despond into another. You have had many losses […]; you have had many crosses, disappointments, bereavements; nothing prospers with you.” [Quoted in Eswine, 31] Spurgeon knew that this was what some people’s lives seemed to look like.
For others it was not rooted in circumstances, but maybe in temperament. “Some persons,” Spurgeon wrote, “are constitutionally sad.” [Quoted in Eswine, 33] They seem, he writes, to be “born with a melancholy temperament.” [Quoted in Eswine, 34] Maybe you want to feel more joy. You know you’ve been given gifts. But somewhere between the gifts God has given, and your own emotions, there seems to be this gap – this chasm. And you cannot enjoy or rejoice in them as you wish you could. You smile at the gift as it comes. But your smile is only from the neck up. Your chest still feels held by numbness, or sadness, or even despair.
Whether it’s your circumstances, your temperament, or something else … what are we to say to the one who struggles with sorrow or despair? How can you have gratitude towards God, rather than coveting what he has not given you in this life? How can you feel gratitude when the world goes grey … when grief feels like your resting state … when your heart groans inwardly?
If that is your question, the Apostle Paul has words for you. Before we even read these words, we need to recognize that Paul was acquainted with sorrows. Paul knew painful circumstances – he experienced slander, and imprisonment, betrayal, and physical assault. Paul also knew about internal struggles in the heart. In one place he wrote about a time that he was despairing of life itself. [2 Corinthians 1:8] In another, after giving a long list of trials and tribulations, as what seems to be the climax of his trials, he lists the daily pressures and anxieties he feels in his calling. [2 Corinthians 11:28] Paul knew suffering within, and he knew suffering without. And yet, even so, in Romans 8, he writes this – he says:
18 For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worth comparing with the glory that is to be revealed to us. 19 For the creation waits with eager longing for the revealing of the sons of God. […]22 For we know that the whole creation has been groaning together in the pains of childbirth until now. 23 And not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait eagerly for adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies. 24 For in this hope we were saved. Now hope that is seen is not hope. For who hopes for what he sees? 25 But if we hope for what we do not see, we wait for it with patience.
There’s a lot there to unpack, but note a few things with me.
First, when Paul says, “For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worth comparing with the glory that is to be revealed to us,” he’s not minimizing your pain. As we said, Paul knew real pain. He knew real despair. He knew real anxiety. Paul isn’t minimizing the griefs of this world, but he is pointing to a hope that can give us a kind of anticipatory gratitude even in the midst of suffering.
Think of the picture Paul evokes here: a woman in labor. During labor … how much gratitude does a woman feel? I’m not sure … I’ve never been in labor … but it seems like in those moments, other things are making a deeper impression on her mind. Pain … and focus on the difficult task at hand … and maybe anxiety over how the process will go … these things, quite understandably, are her primary areas of focus. The husband who says to his wife in the middle of a painful contraction “Darling, don’t you feel so grateful right now?” is likely to get some sharp words in return.
But life is sometimes like that. The pain, or the challenge, or the anxiety are in the forefront. And yet … even in those moments, there can be a sort of gratitude of anticipation … there can be hope.
That is, after all, what usually keeps the woman who is in labor going – she is usually motivated by the thing that she knows is to come, even in the midst of labor pains, and labor anxieties. She knows that a baby, another human being, her child, comes at the end of the process. And she is so preemptively thankful for that little one, that she willingly engages in the labor process that will bring about their birth. The struggle of that moment in labor is real. But she considers that the suffering of that present time is not worth comparing with the joy that she knows is to come.
And so it is for many of us in this life. At many times we may struggle to feel gratitude for the gifts we have in this life. At many times we may not even feel very grateful for our existence. And yet, even then, especially then, if we place our trust in Christ and we know him and the promise of the resurrection, then we can know that the “sufferings of this present time are not worth comparing with the glory that is to be revealed to us.”
When Christ returns – when he raises us up from the grave at the resurrection – not only will our circumstances be healed, but our hearts and our minds and our bodies will be healed. That gap we feel between the gifts in our lives and our own ability to respond with joy – that gap will evaporate. And we will both be blessed and be able to perfectly rejoice in those blessings. For, as we are reminded at the end of the Bible, on that day God will wipe away every tear from our eyes, “and death shall be no more, neither shall there be mourning, nor crying, nor pain anymore, for the former things [will] have passed away.” [Revelation 21:4]
How do you need to reflect on that? How do you need to remember the blessing of eternal life – of infinite joy at the resurrection – that is promised to you in the gospel?
And even though you don’t have that yet … even though you’re not experiencing that yet … how should the fact that you know it is coming help you experience some level of gratitude, even now? How should it help you give thanks? How should it reframe your present suffering? How should it reframe your discontentedness?
The fourth thing for us to consider when it comes to gratitude is the hope of the gospel.
5) Gratitude & What God is Doing Right Now
Fifth, and finally, when it comes to gratitude, we need to consider what it is that God is doing in our lives right now.
Another minister recently pointed me to a passage in the Institutes, where John Calvin discusses how we should think about injustice we may experience in this life … but really the point he makes applies to any suffering or any lack that we experience in this life. Calvin essentially reminds us there that in any earthly trial, we need to consider at least two things. One is, of course, the earthly reality: what is happening to us here, in our circumstances, and why. But the other is the heavenly reality. It’s rooted in the fact that God ordered these events in our life and that the Bible says that God works all things for the benefit of his people [Romans 8:28] … and so we must also consider what God is doing in us through these events. [Calvin, Institutes, I.17.8 (I am grateful to Pastor Eric Irwin for pointing me to this passage and helping me see some of its implications.)]
And I particularly mean in us. We often wonder how God is working through our current circumstances to bring about future circumstances. But I’m talking about how God is using our current circumstances to shape our hearts – to work inside us, for our good … to make us more and more like himself.
What is a circumstance of your life where you struggle with discontentedness with what you have, and you covet what others have? And set aside those areas where what you’re discontent with is sin – it’s good to be discontent with our sin, and with the sin of others. That’s not what we’re talking about though. I’m talking about an area where you’ve been given something that’s not inherently morally bad … where many would call it good … but it’s not good enough in your mind … and your discontent with it, and you just wish you had something better.
Maybe it’s an aspect of who you are – some aspect of your mind or your body. Maybe it’s an aspect of another person whose life is inextricably tied to yours … and there’s some part of them that you are discontent with and wish was different … maybe it’s a parent, or a child, or a sibling, or your spouse … and maybe it’s not the whole person you are discontent with, but some aspect of them that you keep finding yourself discontent with and covetously wishing they were more like someone else in that area. Maybe it’s your career that you are discontent with … or maybe it’s your bank account … or maybe it’s your house … or your field, or your ox or your donkey.
What is it for you? Where do you especially struggle with discontentedness and covetousness?
Now, here’s the point I want to make: In your life, right now, there is a gap between your desires and what the Lord has given to you. He knows that. In fact, he’s done it to you on purpose. What do you think he might be trying to accomplish in your heart by doing that?
Now … maybe he’s simply working in you to overcome your petty discontentedness over something that, cosmically speaking, is not actually that important.
But maybe it’s also deeper than that. Maybe he knows that giving you that thing that you want would not actually be good for you spiritually. Maybe he knows that there are benefits to your heart of having to deal with this thing that bothers you, that you don’t even realize. I have no idea what God is doing in your heart, but I do know that if you belong to Jesus then he is certainly using it to work in your heart – because that is what he said he’d do.
In Romans 8:28 we’re told that God works all things together for the good of those he has called to himself. And our greatest good is usually our spiritual good. And so, God has some plan for how he is working out your salvation – how he is shaping your heart for eternity – through this area where you are experiencing discontentedness right now.
And that fact should make you thankful. Because while you are maybe hung up on a circumstance that is bothering you, God is attending to even more important issues in your heart that will last forever.
In ever gap between your desire and what you have, God has a purpose. Maybe it’s just to teach you to be more thankful. But often it’s even more than that. Because he knows what we most need to grow and to follow him, far better than we know it.
The fifth thing for us to consider when it comes to gratitude is that right now, God is working all things – including those areas where we feel disappointment or discontentedness – he is using even those things to shape our hearts and make us more like Jesus. And that very fact should lead us to give thanks even for our struggles.
As we consider the tenth commandment, the theme that comes up again and again is the question of where we will put our hope, where we will put our trust, where we will find our ultimate fulfillment.
A heart of sinful discontentedness and coveting seeks to place its ultimate hope, and trust, and fulfillment in things. The call of the gospel – the call of the Ten Commandments – is to find our ultimate hope, trust, and fulfillment in God. Which is why the Apostle Paul can say in Colossians 3:5 that covetousness is idolatry.
In a sense then, as we come to the tenth commandment, we find ourselves back at the first. We find ourselves back at questions of where our ultimate meaning and hope in life comes from.
Commentator Christopher Wright puts it like this – he writes: “Thus the commandments come full circle. To break the tenth [‘You shall not covet.’] is to break the first [‘You shall have no other gods before me.’]. For covetousness means setting our hearts and affections on things that then take the place of God.” And so, on the one hand, anyone who denies God will choose to place their trust instead in things, and will “declare that a person’s life does consist in the abundance of things [they] possess.” [Wright, 86] And such an approach to life will lead to hollowness and hopelessness.
On the other hand, to truly embrace the first commandment – to see God as the ultimate source of our hope, our trust, and our fulfillment, is to root ourselves in him, and to thus find a wholeness and a gratitude that overcomes the covetousness we’re warned about in the tenth commandment.
And so, brothers and sisters, let us look to God. And as we do, let us give him thanks for our creation, for our preservation in spite of our sin, and for the grace of our salvation. Let us give him thanks for the ways he is working in our lives now, and the ways he has promised to bless us in the life to come.
Because such thanks, properly embraced, and rooted in the gospel, can drown every covetous thought that arises in our hearts.
This sermon draws on material from:
Barker, Paul. Introduction and notes to Deuteronomy in The ESV Study Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2008.
Block, Daniel I. The NIV Application Commentary: Deuteronomy. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2012.
Calvin, John. Institutes of the Christian Religion. Translated by Ford Lewis Battles. Edited by John T. McNeill. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1960.
Eswine, Zack. Spurgeon’s Sorrows: Realistic Hope for Those Who Suffer Depression. Scotland, UK: Christian Focus, 2014.
Frame, John. The Doctrine of the Christian Life. Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing, 2008.
Leithart, Peter J. The Ten Commandments: A Guide to the Perfect Law of Liberty. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2020.
Warren, Tish Harrison. “Confession of a Christian Consumerist.” The New York Times. November 13, 2022. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/11/13/opinion/shopping-addicted-consumerism-christian.html
Wilson, N. D. Notes from the Tilt-A-Whirl. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2009.
Wright, Christopher. Deuteronomy. NIBC. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1996.
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