“The Third Commandment”

Deuteronomy 5:6,11

October 2, 2022

Faith Presbyterian Church – Morning Service

Pastor Nicoletti

The Reading of the Word

We continue our series this morning in Deuteronomy, now going through the Ten Commandments, as we come now to the third commandment. We’ll again include the preface, so our text will be Deuteronomy 5:6 & 11.

Please do listen carefully, for this is God’s word for us this morning.

The Lord said to his people:

“‘I am Yahweh your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery.


11“‘You shall not take the name of Yahweh your God in vain, for Yahweh will not hold him guiltless who takes his name in vain.’”

This is the word of the Lord. (Thanks be to God.)

“All people are like grass, and all their glory is like the flowers of the field; the grass withers and the flowers fall, but the word of the Lord endures forever.” [1 Peter 1:24-25]

Let’s pray …

Prayer of Illumination

Lord, how can we keep our way pure?

By guarding it according to your Word.

Help us now to seek you with our whole hearts.

Keep us from wandering from your commandments.

Let us store up your word in our hearts,

so that we might not turn from you.

We ask this in Jesus’s name. Amen.

[Based on Psalm 119:9-11]


We come this morning to the third commandment. And as we consider this verse, I’m going to argue that there’s more going on here than most Christians tend to think.

And as I make that case, I’ll especially be drawing on the exegetical work of Daniel Block – a Hebrew and Old Testament scholar who not only wrote a helpful commentary on Deuteronomy, but who also wrote a scholarly journal article on this particular verse, digging into both the language and the cultural context of the commandment.

And with Block’s help, along with input from other scholars, we’ll begin with the question: What does it actually mean here to “take” a “name” “in vain”?

What Does It Mean to “Take the Name […] in Vain”?

The third commandment begins: “You shall not take the name of Yahweh your God in vain.” But what does that really mean?

Various interpretations have been held or assumed.

One traditional Jewish understanding of the commandment focused on the role of swearing in the Lord’s name while giving testimony … though that seems to more be the focus of the ninth commandment. [Block, “Bearing,” 20]

In the Second-Temple period, another tradition arose that interpreted the commandment as prohibiting either the mispronunciation of God’s name, or saying his name outside of the temple. This interpretation led many Jews to stop speaking the covenant name of God given in the Hebrew Scriptures: “Yahweh.” They began to replace it with the title “the Lord.” That practice eventually spread to the extent that the vowel pointing in copies of the Hebrew Scriptures indicated that a reader would say “the Lord” instead of “Yahweh” as they read, and then the Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures simply replaced the name “Yahweh” with the title “the Lord” – a practice that continued, so that we see it in almost all English translations still today, where the title “the Lord” in all caps is used in place of the name “Yahweh.” [Block, “Bearing,” 21-22]

Now, obviously I don’t agree with that interpretation of the commandment, as I have often restored the personal and covenantal name of God, “Yahweh,” where the ESV has replaced it with “the Lord.”

Now, to be clear, it’s not wrong to use the title “the Lord” as our translation tradition still does – we know this because the New Testament authors did just that when they quoted or drew from the Greek translation of the Old Testament. And in our liturgy, we usually keep the title “the Lord.” But I also think something can be lost when we always replace the personal name of God with a title – and I don’t think anything obligates us to continue to follow this Jewish tradition.

Setting those Jewish interpretations aside, many Christians tend to assume that the third commandment is focused on the misuse of the Lord’s name, by speaking it in a way that is flippant or linked to profanity. [Block, “Bearing,” 20] That may be your default interpretation as well.

But Daniel Block argues that much more than that is going on in this commandment.

For one thing, the Hebrew word used in this verse, that’s translated “take” in verse eleven, does not, Block points out, mean “to pronounce” or “to misuse” as in the traditional Jewish or Christian interpretations. In fact, he says, it doesn’t even mean “to take.” Rather, the normal sense of the word is “to bear” or “to carry.” It may therefore best be rendered “You shall not bear the name of Yahweh your God in vain.”

But then, we might ask, what is meant by “bear”?

Well, the phrase of “bearing” a name occurs in the Hebrew Scriptures in Exodus 28:12, when the names of the sons of Israel are inscribed on stones, and Aaron bears them on his shoulders (as part of the ephod) before Yahweh, and it comes up again in Exodus 28:29 where the high priest “bears” those name on the breast piece of judgment on his heart. [Block, “Bearing,” 22]

And then something of the same concept seems at play when we’re told that the priest’s turban had a medallion that said, “Holy Belonging to Yahweh” and also when, according to Numbers 6:27, the benediction of the Aaronic priest “put” Yahweh’s name on the Israelites.

In those examples someone bears the name of someone else by having it put on them, either in the form of an actual physical inscription, or with the ritual of a blessing.

But the concept behind this commandment comes into sharper focus when considered in its historical context. “Strictly speaking,” Block writes, “the metaphor involved” in the third commandment “derives from the practice of branding or marking slaves […] with the name of their owner.” [Block, “Bearing,” 24]

In the ancient world, slave owners would brand their slaves with their name. And this was a practice that it seems Israel would have been familiar with, as there are historical witnesses to the practice in Egypt, during the time when Israel itself was enslaved there. [Block, “Bearing,” 24]

As slaves belonged to their master, and so bore their master’s name, so Israel belongs to Yahweh, and bears his name.

And that concept of ownership would have been potent especially when this commandment was first given at Mount Sinai. Israel had been Pharoah’s slaves. But Yahweh had delivered them – he had rescued them from Pharoah’s tyrannical slavery. But he didn’t rescue them just to let them loose on their own. Rather, he told them that now they belonged to him – they belonged to God, to Yahweh. [Block, “Bearing,” 24-25]

And that point is then driven home in the third commandment, when Yahweh says to them, effectively, now that you are mine, now that you bear my name, rather than Pharoah’s, do not bear my name in an unworthy way – in a vain or empty or worthless way. Instead, as those who bear my name – as those who now represent me as my people and my servants – bear my name in a way that will bring me honor. [Block, “Bearing,” 25]

Block concludes: “To bear the name of God means to have His name branded on one’s person as a mark of divine ownership.” [Block, “Bearing,” 23]

Now there is, of course, no literal branding rite in the Old or New Testaments. So, we might ask: When, exactly, did we receive this branding?

On one level this branding is placed on our hearts when we embrace Christ by faith. On another level, this branding is re-impressed on us every Lord’s Day when we, as believers, receive the benediction – as Numbers 6:27 tells us.

But in an even more concrete way, the name of God was branded on us at our baptism. In baptism, the name of the Triune God is placed on us: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. In baptism that name is placed on us, and it cannot then be removed in this life. The baptized bear the name of the Triune God. [Leithart, 48]

It’s true that many who bear that name by baptism will rebel – those who are baptized may reject Christ in the end. But even as they do, they will not be simply outsiders who never knew the Lord, but treasonous servants who ultimately rejected their rightful Master.

Baptism is many things. It’s a sign and seal of our cleansing, of our engrafting into Christ, our partaking of the benefits of the covenant of grace, and of our engagement to be the Lord’s. And with that – especially with that last sense (our engagement to be the Lord’s), baptism is a branding.

Don’t let the cuteness of the little babies so often up here distract you from the fact that, symbolically speaking, there is something appropriate when they cry at their baptism – because there is a spiritual branding that takes place at that baptismal font, as the Name of the Triune God is placed upon them.

And so the third commandment is a call to faithfully bear the name that we have received into our hearts by faith, that we have had placed on us in the context of worship, and that we have had branded onto us in baptism.

“To bear the name of God means to have His name branded on one’s person as a mark of divine ownership.” [Block, “Bearing,” 23]

Which then leads to the question: What does it look like to bear the name of the Lord rightly as opposed to wrongly? What does it look like to bear the name of the Lord in a way that brings him honor, rather than in a way that is empty, or worthless, or vain?

Well, to better consider those questions and apply them to our lives, let’s look at it from a few different angles.

Bearing the Name in a Right Priority

First, we must bear the name of the Lord in right priority.

We each bear many names. That’s part of who we are. We bear our own personal name, we bear our family name, we bear the name of our nation, we may bear the name of a profession, or the name father, or mother, and so on. We also all bear the name of Christ – we are named as Christians.

Those names are not all equal. Some outrank others. And if mis-ordered, we can be guilty of idolatry of one of our names, and neglect of another of our names. The most important name we bear is God’s name – the name of our Triune God, placed on us in baptism, the name of Christ placed on us as Christians. A right application of the third commandment means that the name of God that we bear should be our highest priority among our many names – even higher than our own name.

But what does that look like?

As I’ve mentioned before, I am from New York, originally. Which means I’ve had the blessing of growing up, from a very early age, as a New York Yankees fan. And the last couple years I’ve started paying more attention again to baseball.

And like many, I’ve enjoyed following not only the Yankees this year, but also Aaron Judge – the best offensive player on the Yankees, and by most metrics, the best offensive player in the entire American League this year.

He leads in many stats, but what has gotten the most attention is the number of homeruns he has hit. And interest rose this year as he began to approach the single-season homerun record for the American League.

That record was first notable set at 60 by Babe Ruth in 1927, and in the American League it has only been surpassed by Roger Marris in 1961, when he hit 61 home runs.

On Tuesday, September 20th, just a couple weeks ago, Aaron Judge stepped up to the plate at Yankee Stadium. At that point he had hit 59 home runs this season. The crowd was on the edge of their seats. They were all wondering: would they see Aaron Judge hit his 60th home run – would they see him tie Babe Ruth’s record – something only one other player in the American League had ever done? The 3-1 pitch came, Judge swung, and he connected – the crowd jumped to their feet as the ball sailed 430 feet, out of the park, at 111 miles per hour. Judge had tied Babe Ruth’s record. And the crowd went wild.

But Judge ran around the bases with no sign of celebration. As he entered the dugout, he went through the same sort of high fives as he did after any homerun, but his face remained neutral. He seemed less happy than most of the fans.


Well, the Yankees were still losing the game. It was the bottom of the ninth, and even after Judge’s home run, the Yankees were still down by three runs.

In interview after interview up to this point, Judge had repeatedly said that his chief concern was not setting personal records, but winning for his team. In press conference after press conference he had said that he was more concerned with advancing the Yankees than with advancing his own name. Now … that might change once he goes into free agency, but at least for now – at least for this season, Aaron Judge has insisted that when he is on the field, he cares more about how he bears the name of the “Yankee” than he does how he bears the name “Aaron Judge.”

And to most of our cynicism, that kinda sounds like a talking point, right? But on September 20th it seemed like it might actually be true.

The crowd kept cheering for Judge, and eventually his manager made him come back out of the dugout to acknowledge the crowd. He did an incredibly brief curtain call … and then, after he returned to the dugout, a camera caught him standing there, shaking his head, and it looked like he said something like “I didn’t want to do that.”

Judge said he cared more about how he bore the name Yankee than how he bore his own name on the field. And so, if the Yankees were losing, he did not want to celebrate – even if he’d just accomplished an extraordinary personal feat.

Those were his priorities of the names he bore on the field.

And that came out even more clearly later on in the ninth inning. Because after Judge’s home run, the Yankees began to rally. And a few batters later, with the bases loaded in the bottom of the ninth, Giancarlo Stanton hit a homerun to win the game for the Yankees.

And it was amazing to watch Aaron Judge as that happened. Whereas before Aaron’s Judge’s face had been neutral at best, now Aaron Judge lit up – he sprang out of the dugout, onto the field, with a huge smile on his face, jumping up and down, embracing his teammates, dancing at one point.

He looked about fifty times more excited over Stanton’s home run that won the game for the Yankees than he did over his own homerun in which he personally tied the record set by Babe Ruth.

Now, I realize it’s just a sporting event. But even so: that is a little picture of what it looks like to prioritize bearing another name you are given, over your own name. That is what it looks like to care more about how you honor another name that has been placed on you, than your own name.

So here’s the question, then: In your own life, when it comes to honor given to your name, versus honor given to the name of our Triune God, which you bear – what gets you most excited? What are you most emotionally invested in?

Whatever your equivalent is of leaping out of the dugout and onto the field – of jumping up and down and dancing – whatever that is for you, what is more likely to lead to that: knowing that the name of Christ has been honored before others, or knowing that your name has received honor from others? Or what will be most effective to put a damper on your emotions? If Christ’s name is exalted, but your name is put down, how will you respond to that? Or, on the other side, if your name is being lifted up, but Christ’s is being ignored or disregarded, how will you feel then?

This is one of those things where, if you are a Christian, then you know what the right answer should be – that part is easy, that part is obvious. But actually doing it – actually having your heart tuned that way … that’s a whole lot harder.

For example: There is little that is more obvious than the fact that when I step into this pulpit, I should be exponentially more concerned with what you all think about Jesus by the time I’m done talking, than I am concerned with what you all think of me. What my priorities should be is obvious. But actually doing that – actually having those priorities at a heart-level – at a gut level – that is a whole lot harder.

That might be a place where the difficulty with those priorities obviously comes up for me – but where does it most obviously come up for you? Maybe it’s in your family life, or in your personal virtue. Maybe it’s in your career or in your involvement in the church. But wherever it may be: where do you see this tension?

Where we see our concern for how we bear our own name exceeding our concern for how we bear the Lord’s name – that is a place where we are struggling with the sort of issues at the heart of the third commandment. That is a place where we are at risk of bearing the Lord’s name in an unworthy manner, because we fail to value that name in our lives as we should.

So the first way this applies is that we must bear the name of the Lord in right priority.

Bearing the Name Before Men, Women, and Children

Second, we must rightly bear the name of the Lord before men, women, and children.

This is not really a different point from our last one, but it looks at it from another angle – not from the perspective of our hearts, but from the perspective of how we impact the people around us.

God’s people, from the very beginning, were called to mission. When Yahweh called Abraham – the patriarch of Israel – when he called Abraham, among the promises he gave to him, he said “in you all the families of the earth shall be blessed.” [Genesis 12:2-3]

A few chapters later he said to him “in your offspring shall all the nations of the earth be blessed.” [Genesis 22:18]

Israel, Abraham’s descendants, were to be a nation of priests. That means, among other things, that they were to be a people who pointed the nations around them to Yahweh. And one way they were to do that was, as the people of Yahweh, to bear the name of Yahweh with honor.

First, they needed to do that before one another – before their fellow Israelites. If they were to bear the name of God in a worthless or unworthy way before their fellow Israelites – before their Israelite neighbors, or their friends, or their family members – even their children … If they were to bear the name of Israel’s God but then to live in a hypocritical way, then they would be sowing seeds of doubt about Yahweh’s goodness among their fellow Israelites. They might lead their children, or their friends, or their neighbors to wonder if Yahweh is good after all … if his people are really good … or if life among the pagans might actually be better. So first, the people of Israel needed to consider how they were bearing the name of God before other Israelites within the people of God.

Second, each Israelite, and the nation as a whole, was to bear the name of Yahweh with honor before the unbelieving pagan world around them. They were to be markedly different in how they lived – they were to live in a way that showed that they belonged to Yahweh: in a way that raised questions, or curiosities, or even confusion … in a way that was noticeably different. In a way that brought honor to the name of Yahweh.

And Jesus applies these same concepts to the Church when he says to us: “let your light shine before others, so that they may see your good works and give glory to your Father who is in heaven.” [Matthew 5:16] Note that there are two things going on there. First, our lives are to be a light in a dark world. But second, we are to bear the name of God our Father in such a way that when our lives are a light, the people around us don’t respond by glorifying us, but they respond by glorifying God our Father, whose name we bear.

And the fact that we bear the name of the Triune God before a watching Christians, and before a watching world … that should shape how we think of our words, our actions, and our inaction before others.

First, this commandment has implications for how we speak of the Lord. We should not speak the Lord’s name in a way that is flippant or degrading. We should not, for example, use God’s name like an expletive. We should not toss it out casually to indicate surprise. And it’s here where all those applications that Christians typically think of for this commandment fit. When we speak, we should not speak of the Lord in a way that is flippant or derogatory. We should not speak his name in an unworthy way.

That is important. Our words really do matter. But again, the third commandment is not just about how we speak the Lord’s name before others. It’s about how we bear it in every aspect of life. And that includes our actions, and our inaction.

When we do things contrary to God’s will and character, we bear his name in an unworthy manner. When we don’t do things that God’s will and his character would call us to do, we bear his name in an unworthy manner. When people see our sinful actions, or our sinful inaction, we bear the Lord’s name in an unworthy manner.

In other words, the third commandment is a call to bear witness to the Lord, in word and in deed, before a watching world: before the men, women, and children that the Lord has put around us – both within the Church and outside of the Church.

That is the second thing for us to see here.

Bearing the Name Before Heaven

Third, we need to recognize that the call to bear the Lord’s name rightly is not just a call to do that before men, women, and children … but it’s also a call to rightly bear God’s name before the heavenly host.

And I add this aspect as something of a guard rail against a way we can go very wrong in applying what I’ve said so far. In our secular age, it can be easy for us to think as if we simply live our lives before other human beings. And that can make us into sort of PR agents, or ad executives either for ourselves or for the Church. We think of managing our brand before other people. And so we actively manage our image in public spaces … but then when we retreat to the private realm, we put all that aside, and we do what we want.

But we can’t do that when it comes to bearing Yahweh’s name. Because our call is not just to bear the Lord’s name in a worthy manner before other human beings, but before God himself and all the heavenly hosts – even before the devil.

We see this in the Book of Job. In the Book of Job, as Job struggles to remain faithful – to bear the Lord’s name with honor and not in an unworthy way – it quickly becomes apparent that in the story the audience of primary concern is not Job, or his wife, or his human companions – but the heavenly hosts: the angels, and the Lord, and even the devil himself. Job’s most important task is to bear God’s name faithfully before them.

Which means we cannot fulfill this commandment by just maintaining our public image, but this commandment demands that we faithfully bear the Lord’s name with honor in every area of life, in what we say and in what we do, not only in public but also in private – in those moments when no other human being can see us, but the heavenly hosts still can.

We cannot live double lives and fulfill this commandment. We cannot live hypocritical lives and fulfill this commandment. To fulfill this commandment, we must bear the name of the Lord with honor every moment, in every area of life – as living our lives not only before men, women, and children, but also before angels and demons, and all of heaven.

That’s the third thing for us to consider about how this command applies to us.

Bearing the Name in the Face of Our Faults

Now when we consider all of that, we can begin to feel a heavy weight on our backs. Because we know we don’t bear the Lord’s name in a worthy way all the time. We know we fall short daily in this. And so we need to ask, if we are called to bear the name of the Lord with honor: What does it mean for us to rightly bear the name of the Lord in the face of our faults?

And what we need to see is that far from the third commandment crushing us, it actually points to our hope. Because since the fall, part of what it has always meant in this life to bear the name of Yahweh is to acknowledge that we are sinners in need of grace. And so the fact that we bear Christ’s name actually frees us, and even compels us, to be more honest about our sin and shortcomings than anyone else can be.

Because while our righteousness and faithfulness glorifies God – while that is so much of what this commandment calls us to – it is also true that God can use our sin to his glory as well.

Here’s what I mean by this: When the Apostle Paul wrote to Timothy “The saying is trustworthy and deserving of full acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, of whom I am the foremost” [1 Timothy 1:15] – when he wrote those words, he was bearing the Lord’s name with honor. He was acknowledging the Lord’s goodness and grace, while also acknowledging his own sin.

Because when we admit our failures honestly – when we own them before God and others, we do honor the Lord’s name. Because we point to his grace.

Our name may be marked by sin. But Christ’s name, in his mercy, in his grace, in his patience – his name is exalted.

Now, As the Apostle Paul reminds us, this does not mean that we should “continue in sin that grace may abound” – not at all. That would not honor the Lord’s name. Instead, we honor the Lord’s name when we strive to live and speak in ways that bring him glory, and we honor the Lord’s name when we own our sin openly when we fail.

That means we can have a level of comfort with admitting our own sin and shortcomings to other people. If we care more about Christ’s name than our own, then actually, we will be less devastated when other people learn of our sin and our need for repentance. We will, at the same time, be more grieved before God for our sin, but we’ll be less distressed by what other people think of us, and more anxious to make sure they are aware of the unmerited grace and patience the Lord has shown us, and continues to show us.

A result of this is that in a culture when everyone is always shifting blame, when everyone is always pointing to others when confronted for their sin … where everyone is chiefly concerned with their own name … Christians should be the most able to admit their sins, and their failures, and their shortcomings. Because they’re more concerned about what people think of their gracious and patient Lord than they are concerned about what people think about them personally.

That is what we’re called to. But it’s not an easy thing to do. Most of us are not very good at it, if we’re honest with ourselves.

And that difficulty brings us to our final point about what it means to bear the name of Christ.

Bearing the Name Before God

The last question for us to consider is: What is it that makes it possible for us to do this? How can we stop worrying about our own name? How can we value Christ’s name that we bear more than our own? And when we fail – when we fall short – what enables us to own our sins so openly? In short: What enables us to bear the Lord’s name before others rightly?

And the answer is that what makes all this possible is the knowledge that we bear Christ’s name before God, and that Christ has borne our name.

The only way we can own our sin, the only way we can cease worrying about how we bear our own name, and focus first and foremost on how we bear the Lord’s name, the only way we can truly do that is to live out of the fact that before God, we bear Christ’s name, and he has borne ours.

Central to the gospel is that when we come before God, we do not come in our own name, but in Christ’s. Our entire acceptance before God comes from the fact that we bear Christ’s name. All who trust in Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior, from the heart, are accounted as being in Christ. And when we go before God, though we, through sin, have damaged and destroyed our standing with God, we can now come before God bearing Christ’s standing – bearing his right relationship with God – bearing his name. And so, in Christ we are accepted by God, in Christ we are embraced by God, in Christ we have true fellowship and peace with God. This is the promise of the gospel. In this sense, bearing the name of Christ is not primarily an obligation, but rather, bearing the name of Christ is the only source of our hope and our assurance before God. It is the good news of the gospel.

But it’s only half the good news. We heard the other half earlier in our service, in the declaration of pardon. There we heard these words, from the Lord, through the prophet Isaiah – we heard God say to his people: “See, I have engraved you on the palms of my hands.”

Now there are several things going on there in Isaiah 49. At the forefront, Yahweh is assuring his people that he will not forget them, as the verse before emphasizes. But I think more is going on there as well.

Because that picture of having someone’s name engraved on your hands – as we said earlier, it would have evoked a certain kind of image in the ancient world. One commentator on Isaiah described the imagery of Israel’s name being inscribed on Yahweh’s hands like this – he said: “Here, is the opposite of the normal practice. Instead of the master’s name being written on the servant’s hand, the servant’s name is written on the master’s hand.” [Oswalt, 306] Suddenly, Yahweh, who is Israel’s master, is describing himself like a servant of Israel, bearing Israel’s name. And in that we get a hint – WE GET a foreshadowing – of what we sang of earlier this morning about Jesus Christ:

“My name is graven on His hands;

My name is written on His heart.

I know that while in heaven He stands,

No tongue can bid me thence depart.”

[“Before the Throne of God Above” by Vikki Cook]

In Jesus Christ, God himself took on the form of a servant, he had the name of his people inscribed onto himself, and bearing our name he went to the cross, to receive the judgment our name deserved. Then he rose from the dead, to give us new life. And now he stands before the throne of God to plead for our name.

We can bear his name because he first bore ours.

This is what Christ has done for us. And so we no longer need to worry about hiding our sin or vindicating our own name, because Christ has already cleansed our name in his death, and renewed our name in his resurrection.

And if he has done that for us – if he has gone to the cross for us – in order to bear our name … then how could we be flippant about how we bear his name? How could we speak his name in a way that’s empty? How could we bear his name as if it were insignificant? How could we fail to make it our primary goal to honor him in how we bear his name in everything we do?

Christ has had our name engraved on his hands.

He has placed his name on us.

It is a wonderful gift. Let us not bear it in vain.


This sermon draws on material from:

Barker, Paul. Introduction and notes to Deuteronomy in The ESV Study Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2008.

Block, Daniel I. “Bearing the Name of the Lord with Honor.” Bibliotheca Sacra. Vol. 168. January – March 2011. 20-31. Available here: http://dailyqt.org/docs/BearingtheNamewithHonor.pdf

Block, Daniel I. The NIV Application Commentary: Deuteronomy. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2012.

Frame, John. The Doctrine of the Christian Life. Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing, 2008.

Leithart, Peter J. The Ten Commandments: A Guide to the Perfect Law of Liberty. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2020.

Oswalt, John N. The Book of Isaiah, Chapters 40-66. NICOT. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1998.

Wright, Christopher. Deuteronomy. NIBC. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1996.

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