“Hidden to Be Made Manifest”

Mark 4:21-25

March 26, 2023

Faith Presbyterian Church – Morning Service

Pastor Nicoletti

The Reading of the Word

We continue our series in the Gospel of Mark, and we come now to Mark 4:21-25.

Please listen carefully, for this is God’s word for us this morning:

21 And he [that is, Jesus,] said to them, “Is a lamp brought in to be put under a basket, or under a bed, and not on a stand? 22 For nothing is hidden except to be made manifest; nor is anything secret except to come to light. 23 If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear.” 24 And he said to them, “Pay attention to what you hear: with the measure you use, it will be measured to you, and still more will be added to you. 25 For to the one who has, more will be given, and from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away.”

This is the word of the Lord. (Thanks be to God.)

“All people are like grass, and all their glory is like the flowers of the field; the grass withers and the flowers fall, but the word of the Lord endures forever.” [1 Peter 1:24-25]

Let’s pray …

Prayer of Illumination

Lord, we rejoice at your word,

like one who finds great spoil.

We hate falsehood,

but we love your commandments.

We know that those who love your law have peace,

and nothing can make them stumble.

And so help us now to keep your testimonies from the heart,

and to love them exceedingly.

Help us to pursue a life of faithfulness,

knowing that all our ways are before you.

Grant this, we ask, for Jesus’s sake. Amen.

[Based on Psalm 119:162-163, 165, 167-168]


Our text this morning is an interesting one. And it’s one that, I think, we can be prone to just kind of slide past when we read the Bible.

A superficial reading of this text can give us the impression that we know what Jesus is talking about … when, in fact, unless we slow down and really work through it verse by verse, we probably don’t know what Jesus is getting at here.

Part of what can lead to this is that in these five verses, Jesus uses a lot of images or phrases that he uses elsewhere. And so, if we’ve read or listened to those other Bible passages, we can tend to assume that we know what Jesus is saying here too. But that’s not actually the case.

Here’s what I mean.

In verse twenty-one Jesus says: “Is a lamp brought in to be put under a basket, or under a bed, and not on a stand?”

That sounds a lot like Matthew 5:15. In that context Jesus makes it clear that the light he is talking about is us, and the theme is about how we are to point others to God. And so, hearing that, we might assume that this paragraph in Mark 4 is about us letting our light shine before others.

But then we come to verse twenty-two. There Jesus says: “For nothing is hidden except to be made manifest; nor is anything secret except to come to light.” Now this sounds a lot like Luke 12:2 and Matthew 10:26. But there the theme is not about us being the light of the world, but rather Jesus is talking about hypocrisy in one case, and persecution in the other. And the things being hidden or revealed in both cases are not our good works like it was in Matthew 5:15. So it’s a bit confusing.

And then we get to verse twenty-four and it gets really confusing. Jesus says: “with the measure you use, it will be measured to you.”

That sounds like Matthew 7:2 and Luke 6:38, but there Jesus is talking about how we shouldn’t judge other people, and what will happen if we do or don’t.

Then finally we come to verse 25 and Jesus says, “For to the one who has, more will be given, and from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away.” And that sounds like Matthew 13:12 … but that passage is about understanding parables. It also sounds like Matthew 25:29, but that’s about the final judgment.

Now here’s why I point out that this passage sounds like a lot of other ones on very different topics.

I think it’s really easy to coast through this passage and assume we kind of know what Jesus is talking about, because he says lots of Jesus-sounding things that we’ve heard him say elsewhere. But actually, if we just assume that he’s saying the same things here that he’s said in those other passages, then in the end, this paragraph makes no sense at all. It becomes a hodgepodge of Jesus-y sayings … and far too often we just kind of read it as that, and move on.

So if we’re not going to do that, what should we do with this passage instead?

First, we shouldn’t be distracted or distressed by how similar Jesus’s words sound here to other passages that are speaking on quite different topics. It’s not uncommon for teachers and preachers to use the same analogy or illustration in two different places, to describe two different things. That shouldn’t bother us. It also means that we shouldn’t assume that those other passages will dictate what Jesus means here.

Instead, we should slowly work through this passage as it actually is … take it on its own terms … draw from other Scripture, but primarily let this passage speak for itself. We may need to sit in the text … and listen to it closely … and consider it in several contexts … and wrestle with it a bit. Which would be fitting … because what I want to argue is that that is exactly what this passage is calling us to do.

To get at that, I want to ask this text four questions, which will walk us through the five verses before us:

  1. What is the lamp?
  2. What kingdom dynamic is Jesus describing?
  3. What is Jesus calling us to do?
  4. What does Jesus say will happen to us?

What Is the Lamp?

So, first: What is the lamp?

The first thing we read here is: “And he said to them, ‘Is a lamp brought in to be put under a basket, or under a bed, and not on a stand?’”

What does the lamp represent?

As I mentioned, in Matthew 5:15, when Jesus says something similar, the lamp clearly represents us: Jesus’s disciples. So we may ask: Is Jesus using this metaphor in the same way here … or is he using this image to illustrate something different?

And I actually think he is using it to illustrate something different. And this comes out when we notice that there are actually some significant grammatical differences between this verse here in Mark, and the similar ones in Matthew and in Luke.

Commentator James Edwards writes: “The awkwardness of this verse in the original Greek is a clue to its meaning.” While in Matthew and Luke the lamp is an object that others act on, “Mark makes the lamp the subject of the sentence.”

And so, while English translation tends to smooth it out, Edwards explains that the verse could be better translated “Does the lamp come in order that it might be placed under the bowl or under the bed?”

In other cases, when Jesus used this metaphor, the lamp was something that was acted on. But now, here, the lamp itself is active.

And not only that, whereas in other passages Jesus talks about “a lamp,” here he talks about “the lamp.” It has a definite article that seems to set it apart – something the ESV doesn’t capture.

And Edwards argues that there is a theological reason for these subtle grammatical choices.

Jesus speaks here about the lamp that acts – the lamp that has come.

To consider what that may mean, it’s helpful to look back at the Old Testament, and how it uses the metaphor of a lamp. There we see that in Second Samuel God is described as a lamp [2 Sam 22:29]. In First and Second Kings and the Book of Psalms, the Davidic Messiah is described as a lamp [1 Kings 11:36, 15:4; 2 Kings 8:19; Psalm 132]. And in Psalm 119, the Word of God is described as a lamp [Psalm 119:105].

With these images in the background, Jesus speaks of “the lamp” that is arriving [Guelich, 228], using a Greek term that some have argued “is more suitable of a person than an object.” It’s also a term that Mark applies elsewhere, in the same grammatical form, to Jesus. [1:7 and 3:20; Edwards, 139]

All of this has led a number of commentators to conclude that the lamp here, in this particular passage, is Jesus himself. [Edwards, 139; Witherington, 169; also Lane and Hooker cited by Witherington, 169 n.93]. Jesus is the Word of God, he is the Messiah of God, he is God himself, and he is the one who is coming into the world to bring light.

So, back to our first question: In this particular passage, what is the lamp? The lamp, it would seem, is Jesus.

What Kingdom Dynamic Is Jesus Describing?

So we see in verse twenty-one that the lamp is Jesus.

Our second question is: What kingdom dynamic is Jesus describing here?

And that we see in verses twenty-one and twenty-two. Jesus says: “Does the lamp come in order to be put under a basket, or under a bed, and not on a stand? For nothing is hidden except to be made manifest; nor is anything secret except to come to light.”

What is the pattern Jesus is describing here?

Well answering that question begins, I think, with understanding the context into which it’s spoken. Jesus has been telling parables about his ministry, and his followers are confused. In Jesus, the light has come. But the light seems obscured. Some people don’t see it at all. Others perceive that the light is there, but still find themselves perplexed.

And the first thing that Jesus confirms is that that is not the end goal – it’s not why the light came. The light didn’t come to remain hidden and obscured. The light came in order to be revealed: to be seen, and to shed light on all things. Jesus makes that clear in verse twenty-one.

But, he adds, in verse twenty-two, there will be a time when the light is hidden and secret. That’s a key assumption in verse twenty-two. Jesus doesn’t say there that the light will never be hidden or secret. He says that the light may be hidden or secret in order to be made manifest and be revealed.

The sort of pattern Jesus describes makes me think of a video I saw years ago of Joe Everson. I suspect a number of you have seen it before.

It’s a video of Joe Everson singing the national anthem at a Milwaukee Bucks’ game. But he doesn’t just sing. He also paints. And that’s where it gets confusing.

Everson begins to sing the national anthem, and as he does, he’s facing a canvas … which already has some different shades of blue, and then what looks like a big lumpy triangle points down at the top. But there’s not a lot of detail, and it doesn’t really look like anything. And as he sings, he begins to paint on top of what’s already there. And the more he sings and the more he paints, the more we try to make out the image on the canvas … but we struggle. The song continues, the painting continues, and for many of us the confusion continues. He’s adding white sections within that black triangle. He’s adding red splatters. He adds a field of blue to the bottom of the painting, then he adds a bunch of white dots. It still doesn’t look like anything, though.

And then as he approaches the end of the national anthem, and sings about the land of the free and the home of the brave, just as his voice rises up for the finale, he grabs a corner of the canvas, spins it 180 degrees, so that the top is now the bottom and the bottom is now the top, he grabs a broad painting instrument and in one final stroke he adds a set of red and white stripes, and then the image before us becomes clear: It’s a painting of the iconic photo of the American flag being raised after the Battle of Iwo Jima during World War II, with a group of soldiers struggling together to raise the American flag.

And the first time you see it, it shocks you … and people often can’t help smiling. Because as clear as the painting is at the end … it was so hidden up until that point. When you first watch it, most people are really perplexed about what on earth he’s painting. They knew, vaguely, what sort of theme to expect, because of what he was singing. He’s singing the national anthem. And so, we expect something that fits along those lines – something patriotic. But as he paints at first it doesn’t look that way. It looks confused and confusing. But then, when he flips the painting over, and he adds the final red and white stripes, it all clicks into place. What was hidden becomes manifest. What was secret – what only he knew was coming when the painting began – is finally revealed to us all.

And, of course, that was always the plan. The whole point of the singing and the painting – the whole point of hiding and obscuring what was going on – was in order to reveal it. Joe Everson didn’t go out there on the basketball court in order to keep the nature of his painting hidden – not at all. The whole point was to reveal it. But his point was to reveal it in a certain way – to hide and obscure it for a brief period, before ultimately revealing it. And somehow, in a way that we struggle to articulate, doing it like that, makes the whole thing even more captivating.

And that gives us, I think, a picture of what Jesus is doing here. More than that, it gives us a picture of how God often works both in redemptive history, and in our own relationship with him.

And I’m not even talking about God’s providential purposes in our lives – why he allows certain things to happen or keeps other things from happening to us in the details of our lives. That’s a whole other topic, and certainly one worth considering. But it’s not the focus of this text, and I want to focus on Jesus’s main point here. He is talking about the redemptive coming of God’s kingdom, which God has revealed to us in Christ’s, through his Word.

So, consider the experience of Christ’s followers during his earthly ministry. Their experience, I would argue, is a lot like the experience of the audience watching Joe Everson paint.

First, like Everson, Jesus used his words to tell them, at least thematically, what to expect. As Everson sang the national anthem, so Jesus spoke words of Kingdom expectation. His words carried the themes and the melodies of Israel’s hope in the Old Testament. And with that he raised certain expectations.

But then … his actions, and some of his other words, led to confusion. He did and said certain things that seemed far from clear to his original hearers. As the audience watched Joe Everson paint and felt perplexed about what he was doing, so Jesus’s first-century followers watched his ministry and listened to him teach … and they felt perplexed. They tried to make out what he was doing … but they couldn’t. It didn’t make sense to them.

And it’s into that situation – that moment in his ministry – that Jesus is speaking. His followers are watching and they’re listening, and they’re confused. And he essentially says to them: hold on, don’t give up, I know a lot seems hidden and secret right now, but I’m not done yet. I am the light of the world, and I didn’t come to stay under a bowl or a bed. I came to reveal. But first things will be hidden. First, they will seem secret. But the big reveal is coming, and then you will see what God is doing.

That is Jesus’s assurance here. And he followed through on that promise.

The confusion around Jesus’s ministry continued … and for many it reached its peak in his crucifixion and death. At that point many had a perplexity that felt like despair. They thought Jesus was God’s king come to rescue them. But now he was dead. And the picture of his life seemed dark and obscure beyond finding out.

And it was in that moment of confusion that Jesus flipped the canvas, and added the final streaks of color, and everything became clear. It was then that he rose from the dead, displaying his power over sin, and death, and hell. And then he ascended into heaven to reign from there until his return. And with that, what had been hidden was made manifest – what had been secret came to light.

That is the kingdom dynamic that Jesus is describing to his followers.

And that kingdom pattern can be seen well beyond the earthly ministry of Jesus.

In a sense, it is the pattern of redemptive history. From the rebellion of our First Parents, a question hung over human history: How would God redeem his creation from sin, and death, and hell? God clearly had a plan. And he was clearly acting in history. He called Abraham. He formed Israel. He led them to a promised land. He gave them a king. God did many things. And many of them were clear in themselves. But big questions still remain, and as faithful Israelites looked for the ultimate source of their redemption, confusion and perplexity remained. Until Jesus came. And in Jesus, the canvas was flipped, and the streaks of color were added, and the answer became clear: It was in the death and resurrection of God’s Son, the descendent of David, fully God and fully man, that humanity would be saved.

And in both cases – both in the ministry of Jesus and the broader story of redemptive history– after the true picture had been revealed, you could look back and suddenly much of what confused you before, now made sense. Jesus’s words and actions suddenly become more clear to us, as we look back at them through the reality of his death and resurrection. Abraham’s call, and Israel’s history, suddenly make more sense to us when we read them in light of the Messiah who came.

It’s again not unlike that video of that painting. Now, I’ve ruined it for you … but for most people, the first time they watch it, when they don’t know what’s coming, the big reveal at the end comes as a surprise. But after you’ve seen it, or been told what to expect, if you go back and watch it again with that knowledge, it can seem really obvious what’s coming. You look at the upside-down picture even before it’s complete, and wonder how you didn’t see it coming the first time.

And the same is often true with God’s work in Israel and in the earthly ministry of Jesus. There’s a lot that the Lord has hidden in both. But when we go back, in light of the great reveal of who Christ is, it all becomes more clear in retrospect.

We serve a God who seems to delight in revealing things to us in this way. Sometimes he delights in teaching us gradually, incrementally, over time. But other times, he seems to delight in sharing his truth with us in such a way that we are confused at first, but then, in a moment of grace, he flips the picture, and reveals what had been hidden in plain sight … and for some reason we can’t quite articulate, our joy is even greater because of how God has revealed it to us.

And that pattern is not limited to redemptive history … but we also see it in how God works in our own lives.

If you’ve been a Christian for a while … then you’ve probably had the experience of wrestling with a passage of Scripture for some time … maybe being upset by it, or confused by it, or frustrated with it … and while you have the text right there in front of you … you can’t seem to see it clearly. And then, something clicks. Maybe another passage comes to mind that sheds light on it, maybe another Christian provides you with some insight, maybe an illuminating thought just occurs to you, but whatever it is, in that moment, the passage becomes clear. The canvas is flipped, and suddenly what had been hidden is now made manifest. And your joy over understanding God’s word is that much greater because of how you came to understand it.

And there can be many variations on this. Sometimes it’s not a biblical text, but a biblical concept or doctrine or ethical teaching with which you experience this. Sometimes it’s not something you’ve struggled with that becomes clear, but something you’ve never noticed before that suddenly comes to light.

Whatever the details may be, Jesus tells us here that this is how God sometimes works. He brings light. But at first, it’s hidden or obscured. But it’s hidden to be made manifest – it’s obscured in order to be brought to light. And when in a moment, by the illuminating power of the Holy Spirit, it is finally made clear, it is a joy to us … and apparently a delight to God as well.

That is the kingdom dynamic that Jesus is describing here.

So first, we see that the lamp in this passage is Jesus.

Second, we see that the kingdom dynamic is that often, when God brings his light, he first obscures it, in order to then, later, reveal it.

What Is Jesus Calling Us to Do?

That brings us to our third question: In light of this, what is Jesus calling us to do?

And we find the answer in verses twenty-three and twenty-four. In verse twenty-three Jesus says, “If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear.” And then, in verse twenty-four he says “Pay attention to what you hear.”

Jesus’s command is to listen: to hear.

And that might sound very similar to what we said a few weeks ago in the parable of the sower. But it’s also different. Because now Jesus is especially calling us to listen and to hear in the context where things at first seem hidden … because if we listen and if we hear, they will eventually become clear and be brought to light.

To better understand Jesus’s calling, it might be helpful to ask ourselves: What do we tend to do when God confuses us?

And again, let’s focus not on providence, but on God’s self-disclosure to us – in the ways he has spoken and told us who he is.

When God confuses us in what he has spoken, I think that two responses are common.

One is to simply deny the confusion. There is a tendency in our culture to insist that spiritual truths and truths about God should be obvious and straight-forward. In other words, we insist that real and important truths about God will always be easily accessible, right away, for those who seek it sincerely. This shows up in the person who insists that they can intuit, on their own, with little work or reflection, what God is like. It also shows up in the Christian who assumes that their quick reading of a Biblical text is of the same value (even more value, maybe) than the insights of Christians who are older, or more experienced, or more studied, who have wrestled with the text much longer. It shows up in the insistence of some that anything that matters about God or the Bible must be simple and straight-forward. We expect knowing God to be simple and easy if it’s done right.

And yet … we know that that is not what it’s like when we get to know other people … and so it’s kind of odd that we assume that that’s what it should be like to get to know God.

Think of some of those closest to you: maybe your spouse if you’re married … or your children if you have children … or your parents, or siblings, or close friends. What has it been like to get to know them over years, and even decades?

It’s true, certain things we may learn about them right away. But then, often, if we earnestly seek to know them more deeply, we go through patterns of confusion … then deeper understanding … then confusion again … then deeper understanding … and so on.

We see things they do or they say … and it doesn’t make sense to us. Why they would say or do or feel certain things feels like a mystery to us – it’s hidden. But then, as we continue to get to know them … their heart and their story … suddenly that aspect that had confused us comes into focus – what was hidden becomes manifest, and our relationship with them is deepened. And then, if we keep pressing close to them, it usually happens again. And again.

In fact, if another person no longer surprises or confuses us, it may be a sign not that we know them perfectly, but that we’ve ceased to press in, we’ve stopped deepening the relationship.

And if that’s the pattern with human relationships, then how much more would it be true in our relationship with God? If you have assumed that everything about God should be easily understandable and accessible to you, then you need to shake off that presumption, and, as Jesus calls us to in verse twenty-three, listen. You need to pay better attention, as he calls us to in verse twenty-four. Because there is more to God than we have allowed ourselves to appreciate.

On the other hand, some people go in the opposite direction. Rather than assume God is clear and straightforward from the start, when they encounter mysteries, or perplexities about who God is or what he has done, or what the Bible says, they throw up their hands at the mystery, and give up trying to know him. They assume that what is hidden will remain hidden.

But to assume that is to call Jesus a liar. He’s said that all that God has revealed – in redemptive history, in the incarnation and work of Jesus, in the Word of God in the Scriptures – it has been revealed in order to be made manifest and brought to light. And so, when it is hidden, when it seems shrouded in secret meaning, we are not to give up, but to remember that this is not the end of the story. We must press on.

And what does pressing on mean?

It means, once again, listening, and paying attention, to Jesus, as we are told in verse twenty-three and twenty-four. It means trusting that God is actively revealing himself by the Holy Spirit. He is not a God who is far off, but a God who has chosen to be known by all who seek him in faith – all who place their faith in Christ.

That means even that when we’re confused, even when we’re perplexed, we do not stop paying attention to God. We come to him and pray, and we ask him to make himself more known to us. We keep coming to church, to hear God’s Word preached, to sing God’s Word with our brothers and sisters, to receive God’s visible Word in the sacraments. It means we attend to God’s Word ourselves, and to the wise words of other Christians who are explaining God’s Word to us. And as we do, we keep praying that the Holy Spirit will give us that moment when the canvas flips, and we will see him a bit more clearly.

That’s what Jesus calls us to.

So first, we see that Jesus is the light that has come into the world.

Second, we see that though aspects of who he is and what he has done may at times be hidden and obscured from us, he has come in order to be truly known by us.

Third, we see that we are called to pay attention to him, and to receive his self-revelation, in the Scriptures, in worship, among his people, and in creation.

What Does Jesus Say Will Happen to Us?

Fourth and finally: What does Jesus say will happen to us if we obey this call? What is his promise to us here?

Take a look at verses twenty-four and twenty-five: “And he said to them, ‘Pay attention to what you hear: with the measure you use, it will be measured to you, and still more will be added to you. For to the one who has, more will be given, and from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away.’”

What is Jesus getting at here?

Well, I think the most compelling explanation comes from reading these phrases in their historic context of first-century Judaism.

Jesus seems to be alluding to a Jewish proverb here. Two similar statements appear later in the Talmud. In the Talmud, those statements are focused on God’s promise to increase our capacity for him, as we are filled with him. One says that God “puts more into a full vessel, but not into an empty one.” Another states: “According to the standards of mortal man, an empty vessel is able to contain [what is put into it], and a full vessel cannot contain it, but according to the standards of the Holy One […] a full vessel is able to contain it while an empty one cannot.” [Edwards, 141 n.70, citing b. Ber. 40a and b. Suk. 46a-b from M. Hooker]

In other words, Jesus is saying here in Mark 4 that the more we receive God’s self-revelation, the more God himself will increase our capacity to receive even more of him. [Edwards, 141; Bayer, 1900; Witherington, 170]

The more we are filled with the knowledge of God – the more we listen to, and pay attention to, and internalize who God is and what he has done … the more God will increase our capacity to receive even more of who he is.

Which means that we will never max out our capacity for knowing God. But as we learn more – as more of God’s truth fills us, our capacity to hold knowledge of God will increase. To the one who has, still more will be given.

And this, once again, is not unlike our human relationships. When you work to better get to know your friend, or your child, or your parent, or your spouse, it’s not as if you eventually hit a limit where your capacity to know them is full. No, with every new fact, with every new understanding of them, you actually gain even more ability to know and understand them further. The more knowledge we have of them, the more we can still increase that knowledge. And the same is true in our relationship with God.

Alarmingly, though, the opposite is also true. Jesus gives us that warning at the end. To the extent we neglect knowledge of God, our capacity to know him will diminish. That need not be permanent – repentance can reverse that trend. But without repentance, that pattern will continue.

And that too is a pattern we see in our human relationships. When we resist knowing another person, our ability to know them decreases. Our understanding of them becomes less and less rooted in reality and more and more a caricature in our minds.

And in the same way, if we pull back from knowing God, our capacity to know him will diminish. And that can continue until it’s lost forever. “From the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away.”

Which is all the more reason for us to press in, and seek to know our God.


Jesus here, in this passage, is calling us to know him. He has come into the world to be known. And for us to receive that, we need to listen to him – to pay attention to him.

He will often perplex and confuse us. He will often be mysterious to us. That should not alarm us. But rather, we should keep pursuing him, keep listening, keep paying attention. And as we do, again and again, by his grace, the canvas will flip: what had been hidden will be made manifest. What had seemed secret, will come to light.

And as that happens, again and again, we will not fill up our capacity to know our God and Maker and Savior … rather our capacity to know him will increase … so that both in this life, and for all eternity, we can continue to know our God more and more, never reaching our capacity to know him, but always growing in our knowledge and love for him.

That is what Jesus promises, if we will listen, and cling to him by faith.

If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear.


This sermon draws on material from:

Bayer, Hans. Introduction and notes to Mark in The ESV Study Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2008.

Edwards, James R. The Gospel According to Mark. The Pillar New Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2002.

Everson, Joe. “Joe Everson Paints the National Anthem.” Posted by The Milwaukee Bucks on August 22, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JrUEHu_-J8g

Guelich, Robert A. Mark 1-8:26. WBC. Vol 34A. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 1989.

Horne, Mark. The Victory According to Mark: An Exposition of the Second Gospel. Moscow, ID: Canon Press, 2003.

Keller, Timothy. Jesus the King. New York, NY: Penguin, 2011.

Leithart, Peter J. The Four: A Survey of the Gospels. Moscow, ID: Canon Press, 2010.

Witherington, Ben III. The Gospel of Mark: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2001.

Wright, N.T. Mark for Everyone. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2004.

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